Published only in this site. The Portuguese and the Spanish versions were published in journas.
Abstract. In the 1950s, two groups organized around ECLAC, in Santiago, Chile, and ISEB, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, innovated the thinking on Latin American and Brazilian societies and economies. ECLAC mainly criticized the law of comparative advantages and its underlying imperialist views ISEB focused on conceiving the national-developmentalist ideology for economic growth. The idea of a national bourgeoisie was key in both approaches. The Cuban revolution, the economic crisis of the 1960s, and the military coups in the South Cone, however, made room for criticism of these ideas by dependency theory. By rejecting the possibility of a national bourgeoisie, dependency theory that had developed from this criticism also rejected the possibility of proceeding with the national revolution that was essential to economic growth.