The Political Construction of Brazil

2017. An encompassing analysis of Brazil’s society, economy and politics since the Independence. A national-dependent interpretation. Three historical cycles of the relation state-society: State and Territorial Integration Cycle (1822-1929), Nation and Development Cycle (1930-1977) and Democracy and Social Justice Cycle (1977-2010). Crisis since then. (Book: Lynne Rienner Publishers)

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Macroeconomia Desenvolvimentista

2016. With José Luis Oreiro e Nelson Marconi. Our more complete analysis of Developmental Macroeconomics – the central economic theory within New Developmentalism. (book)

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Social classes and strata in contemporary capitalism

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

1981. A sistematic analysis on social classes in contemporary capitalism distinguishing how social classes should be distiguished of social strata and how the two concepts are interconected. (Paper: published only in this site)


Abstract. This is an unpublished essay written in 1981 on social classes and particularly on the new professional middle class. In that year Editora Brasiliense published A Sociedade Estatal e a Tecnoburocracia – a collection of the previous essays on the theory of the new professional class. My other two central papers on the subject, The Emergence of Technobureaucracy (1972) and Introductory Notes to the Statist or Technobureaucratic Mode of Production (1977) are in this book. I intended to include this third essay in a book to be published in English – a project that eventually did not materialize. In 2001 I read the paper, and decided to make it available in my web page, www.bresserpereira.org.br. It is a dated essay, particularly because Soviet Union does not exist anymore, but I believe that it remains relevant for understanding the social structure of the world we live, and why class analysis lost part of its heuristic power. Although complemented by the other essays, it can be read independently.


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