In Pinheiro, Wilheim e Sachs (orgs.), Brasil: Um Século de Transformações. S.Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 2001: 222-259.
An overview of the rise of the state and of public administration in Brazil since late nineteenth century. The Brazilian state was oligarchical and patrimonial; today it is modern, although clientelism and authoritarianism are still present. In the 1930s it realized its bureaucratic reform, and in the 1990s takes place the 1995/98 Brazilian Public Management Reform.