The Political Construction of Brazil

2017. An encompassing analysis of Brazil’s society, economy and politics since the Independence. A national-dependent interpretation. Three historical cycles of the relation state-society: State and Territorial Integration Cycle (1822-1929), Nation and Development Cycle (1930-1977) and Democracy and Social Justice Cycle (1977-2010). Crisis since then. (Book: Lynne Rienner Publishers)

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Macroeconomia Desenvolvimentista

2016. With José Luis Oreiro e Nelson Marconi. Our more complete analysis of Developmental Macroeconomics – the central economic theory within New Developmentalism. (book)

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Why multilateral development banks should provide finance in domestic currencies: a growth and financial stability proposal

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Paper in the round table, "The role of multilateral development banks post-2008 crisis", Shanghai Forum, Fudan University, May 26-28, 2018.


National banks are supposed to offer finance or capital to private and state-owned enterprises, which allows them to invest and to innovate. From this we would conclude that multilateral banks should play the same role, with the difference that its loans are usually disbursed in a reserve currency. This paper rejects that developing countries need foreign capital but acknowl-edges that major projects often require finance. Thus, it distinguishes, on the macroeconomic level, finance from capital. The assumption is that, to execute large investment projects, devel-oping countries need finance, not capital; countries should not be interested in incurring in cur-rent account deficits (the so called "foreign savings") to develop; they should grow with their own savings. The growth with foreign indebtedness policy is self-defeating in so far that the financing of account deficits leads to the appreciation of the national currency and, so, encour-ages consumption instead of investment. Thus, it is not on the interest of developing countries to incur in current account deficits. Nevertheless, multilateral banks may have an important role in fostering growth in developing countries if they provide finance, either if they make loans in the domestic currency of the country, or if they contribute to fund major investment projects in infrastructure and renewables.



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