The Political Construction of Brazil

2017. An encompassing analysis of Brazil’s society, economy and politics since the Independence. A national-dependent interpretation. Three historical cycles of the relation state-society: State and Territorial Integration Cycle (1822-1929), Nation and Development Cycle (1930-1977) and Democracy and Social Justice Cycle (1977-2010). Crisis since then. (Book: Lynne Rienner Publishers)

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Macroeconomia Desenvolvimentista

2016. With José Luis Oreiro e Nelson Marconi. Our more complete analysis of Developmental Macroeconomics – the central economic theory within New Developmentalism. (book)

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The two methods of economics

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Texto para Discussão 148, maio 2006.


Economic theory employs two methods: the hypothetical-deductive method, used principally by neoclassical economists, and the historical-deductive method adopted by classical and Keynesian economists. Both are legitimate, but, since economics is a substantive, not a methodological, science, whose object is the economic system, the historical-deductive method is the more appropriate. The hypothetical-deductive method enables the economist to develop tools to analyze the economic system, but fails in analyzing the economic system as a whole. In contrast, the historical-deductive method proceeds from the empirical observation of reality and the search for regularities and tendencies. It is an empirical method, appropriate for the substantive sciences dealing with open systems, as it is the case of economics.



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