The Political Construction of Brazil

2017. An encompassing analysis of Brazil’s society, economy and politics since the Independence. A national-dependent interpretation. Three historical cycles of the relation state-society: State and Territorial Integration Cycle (1822-1929), Nation and Development Cycle (1930-1977) and Democracy and Social Justice Cycle (1977-2010). Crisis since then. (Book: Lynne Rienner Publishers)

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Macroeconomia Desenvolvimentista

2016. With José Luis Oreiro e Nelson Marconi. Our more complete analysis of Developmental Macroeconomics – the central economic theory within New Developmentalism. (book)

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Transição, consolidação democrática e revolução capitalista

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Dados, vol.54, n.2, 2011: pp. 223-258.


Democracy became the preferred and form of government only in the twentieth century. The new historical fact that led to the change of preference was the capitalist revolution, which changed the manner of appropriating economic surplus from violence to the market. The disappearance of the fear of expropriation, the rise of middle classes and the pressures of the poor are the second, third and fourth new historical facts that opened the way for the transition democracy. After these four conditions were fulfilled, universal suffrage was granted. The theory presented here does not predict transitions, since countries often turn democratic without fully realized historical conditions, but it predicts democratic consolidation, since no country that has completed its capitalist revolution falls back into authoritarianism.



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