As duas fases da história e as fases do capitalismo
Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira
Crítica e Sociedade, Revista de Cultura Política, 1 (1): 168-189..
The capitalist revolution was such a major economic, social and political transformation that that we can see history divided into two phases: ancient and modern times or pre-capitalism and capitalism. While ancient societies change slowly, modern societies change fast as they, for the first time, experience economic development. Taking the more developed countries as reference, capitalism itself may be seen as divided in three phases: commercial capitalism that marked the transition, classical or bourgeois capitalism, and professionals' or knowledge capitalism. The later, that is dominant since the beginning of the 20th century, may be divided in two phases: the fordist one and the 30 neoliberal years of capitalism (1979-2008).