Globalization, nation-state and catching up

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Revista de Economia Política, 28 (4), outubro 2008.


Globalização e estado-nação não são contraditórios. Globalização é o estágio presente do capitalismo no qual os estados-nação se tornaram mais interdependentes, mas não menos relevantes. Pelo contrário, mais, porque a interdependência é causada pela competição. Na competição, os países usam estragégias nacionais de desenvolvimento. Um estudo econométrico demonstra parcialmente este fato. Globalization and the nation-state are not in contradiction, since globalization is the present stage of capitalism development, and the nation-state, the territorial political unity that organizes the space and population in the capitalist system. Since the 1980s, Global Capitalism constitutes the economic system characterized by the opening of all national markets and a fierce competition among nation-states. Developing countries tend to catch up, while rich countries try to neutralize such competitive effort, using globalism as ideology, and conventional orthodoxy as strategy. While commercial globalization favors middle income countries, financial globalization checks their growth. Nationalism remains the ideology they count on to face globalism. At political level, a Global Political System is emerging to control injustices and unbalances that are inherent to globalization.

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